Digital Transgender Archive
Race & Ethnicity Research Guide
This page highlights themes of race and ethnicity in the Digital Transgender Archive. Because transgender history is dominated by the experiences of white trans people, we call particular attention to the intersection of trans experiences with race and ethnic identities. Historical materials related to non-white people who transgress gender norms are often harder to find because such materials are less likely to have been created, preserved, or archived. When they are archived, related search terms often may not have been added to descriptions of those materials, essentially making them hidden. This page is an effort to begin to address that problem by showcasing a wider range of trans-related experiences that can be found throughout history.
How we address race and ethnicity in the DTA
It can be difficult to know a person’s racial or ethnic identity, particularly when we have such limited remnants of their lives. Because racial and ethnic identities are not simply determined by a person's skin tone or appearance, we cannot make assumptions about individuals’ identities when we are interpreting materials. Yet when we add materials to our site, we are challenged by how to best describe each item without mislabeling the people involved. Our Describing Objects policy states that when racial or ethnic identities are not explicitly mentioned in the object, we do not add race or ethnicity identity-based subject terms. In doing so, our aim is avoid misrepresenting anyone. Unfortunately, this also means that materials that feature people of color and materials that relate to racial and ethnic experiences may not always be clearly described as such. Even as we try to discuss this topic here, we alternate between using “people of color” (commonly used in the U.S.) and “non-white” (more often used globally) without any fully satisfying options.
A few U.S.-based trans people of color to read more about on this site
Trans people of color have been influential in U.S. LGBT rights movements throughout the twentieth century. This legacy is becoming more widely known thanks to the increased media coverage of Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera, two pioneering trans women of color who were prominent activists based in New York City. There are also many others in the U.S. who have fought for political and social reforms related to trans experiences. For starters, you can read more about:
- Jose Sarria
- Dawn Wilson
- Marisa Richmond
- Lorena Borjas
- Phillipe Cunningham
- Pauline Park
- Cayenne Doroshow
- Dee Dee Chamblee
A few collections related to non-white trans people to explore on this site
The Latino GLBT History Project aims to conserve and educate people of the cultural heritage, contributions, and accomplishments of the Washington D.C.-area Latino GLBT community. The DTA features the José Gutierrez Collection contributed by the Latino GLBT History Project. This collection consists of eight photographs that showcase drag pageants in the Latino community.
Rudy Cardona and Victor Lopez are the co-creators of a number of pageants: Miss Corpus Christi America, Miss Corpus Christi Metroplex, Miss Nueces County, Miss Texas Riviera, and Mr. Corpus Christi. These pageants were produced by the Texas Crown Productions, which Rudy Cardona was also the owner of. The Victor Lopez and Rudy Cardona Photograph Collection consist of photographs from the pageants, as well as the Houston Baile of 1994 and the Houston Pride parades of 1992-1994.
Oral histories are a form of collecting spoken history through the stories of individuals. Through the Tretter Transgender Oral History Project and the NYC Trans Oral History Project, you can listen to the stories of many individuals who disucss childhood and transition experiences and the violence and discrimination that many trans people face. Most of these oral histories are in English while some are in Spanish. These oral histories, which are easily accessible for a variety of audiences, are a way of preserving history and experiences that are not often captured in other types of historical records.
The International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy was an annual conference created by Phyllis Randolph Frye and hosted in Houston, Texas between 1992-1997. This collection contains over 100 objects, such as presentation transcripts and reports, which advocate for changes in policies, such as employment discrimination.
Keywords to begin your search
Below is a list of a few search terms that will help you browse for materials that relate to various racial and ethnic identities. In order to get the most accurate search results, some of the terms should be entered into the search bar in quotation marks, as shown below.
- “african american”
- "African American authors"
- "African American gays"
- "African American lesbians"
- “Asian American gays”
- “Asian American”
- “black people”
- “racial discrimination”
- “Hispanic American gay”
- "Pacific Islander American gays"
- “people of color”
- "race relations"
What isn’t yet on this site
Our materials are primarily about people from the U.S. and Canada, though we are actively working to develop new collaborations throughout the world in order to widen our scope. We have created a Global Terms page to lists trans-related terms that are used in different parts of the world, though most of those terms are not yet used in our collection. However, you might use the Global Terms page as a starting point for additional research (and please let us know if you find anything we might include!).